Chōjun Miyagi

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Chōjun Miyagi
宮城 長順
Miyagi Chojun.jpg
Born(1888-04-25)April 25, 1888
Naha, Okinawa
DiedOctober 8, 1953(1953-10-08) (aged 65)
Okinawa
StyleGōjū-ryū Karate (founder)
Okinawan martial arts (Naha-te), Fujian White Crane (Crying Crane style), Nam Pai Chuan[1]
Teacher(s)Kanryo Higaonna
RankSōke, Founder of Goju-ryu, Kyoshi - Dai Nippon Butokukai
Notable studentsGogen Yamaguchi, Seiko Higa, Seikichi Toguchi, Tatsuo Shimabuku,[2] Ei'ichi Miyazato, Meitoku Yagi, Seigo Tada, Anichi Miyagi

Chōjun Miyagi (宮城 長順, Miyagi Chōjun, April 25, 1888 – October 8, 1953) was an Okinawan martial artist who founded the Gōjū-ryū school of karate by blending Okinawan and Chinese influences.

Life[edit]

Early life and training[edit]

Sensei Miyagi was born in Higashimachi, Naha, Okinawa on April 25, 1888. One of his parents was a wealthy shop owner. Chojun Miyagi began studying Okinawan martial arts under Ryuko Aragaki at age 11.[3] At age 14, Miyagi was introduced to Kanryo Higashionna (Higaonna Kanryō) by Aragaki. Under his tutelage, Miyagi underwent a very long and arduous period of training. His training with Higaonna was interrupted for a two-year period while Miyagi completed his military service, 1910–1912, in Miyakonojō, Miyazaki.[4] Miyagi trained under Higaonna for 15 years until Higaonna's death in 1916.[5]

Training in China[edit]

In May 1915, before the death of Higaonna, Miyagi travelled to Fujian Province. In China he visited the grave of Higaonna's teacher, Ryū Ryū Ko. In this first trip he travelled with Eisho Nakamoto. After Kanryo Higaonna's death (in Oct, 1915) he made a second trip to Fuzhou with Gokenki. In this second trip he studied some local Chinese martial arts.[6] (Some sources claim he studied Shaolin Kung Fu in Fuzhou, although historical records indicate that Southern Shaolin was razed to the ground by Qing government forces more than 300 years prior to his visit, and the modern day Fuzhou Shaolin Temple is a recent reconstruction based on a popular movie).[citation needed] It was in this second trip that he observed the Rokkishu (a set of hand exercises rather than a formal kata, which emphasizes the rotation of the forearms and wrists to execute offensive and defensive techniques), which he then adapted into the Tensho Kata. From the blending of these systems, and his native Naha-Te, a new system emerged. However, it was not until 1929 that Chōjun Miyagi named the system Gōjū-ryū, meaning "hard soft style".[6]

Return to Japan[edit]

After several months in China, Chōjun Miyagi returned to Naha where he opened a dojo.[6] He taught for many years, gaining an enormous reputation as a karateka. Despite his reputation, his greatest achievements lie in popularization and the organization of karate teaching methods. In recognition of his leadership in spreading karate in Japan, his style, Goju-Ryu, became the first style to be officially recognized by the Dai Nippon Butokukai. He introduced karate into Okinawa police work, high schools and other fields of society. He revised and further developed Sanchin - the hard aspect of Goju, and created Tensho - the soft aspect. These kata are considered to contain the essence of the Goju-ryu. The last kata taught in most dojos, Suparinpei, is said by some to contain the full syllabus of Goju-ryu, although this assertion is disputed. Shisochin was Miyagi's favorite kata at the end of his years. With the goal of unification of various karate styles which was in fashion at that time (see Gichin Funakoshi for his works in Japan), he also created more Shuri-te-like katas known as Gekisai Dai Ichi and Gekisai Dai Ni in 1940, taking techniques from higher forms (notably Suparinpei, and upper blocks uncommon for Goju-ryu at that time) and incorporating them into a shorter forms. It is said he created these kata to bridge the gap between Sanchin and Saifa, which contains much more complex moves compared to Sanchin, as well as to have forms to teach to his students in the Prefectural Teacher's College.[7]

Death and legacy[edit]

Miyagi had his first heart attack in 1951, and died in Okinawa on October 8, 1953 from a second heart attack.[7] Some of Miyagi's more notable students were: Seko Higa (also a student of Kanryo Higaonna), Miyazato Ei'ichi (founder of the Jundokan dojo), Meitoku Yagi (founder of the Meibukan dojo, Seikichi Toguchi (founder of Shorei-kan Goju-ryu), and on the Japanese mainland Gōgen Yamaguchi who was the founder of the Gōjū Kai in Japan.[8]

Successor[edit]

Miyagi died without having officially named a successor, and several of his pupils have proclaimed themselves as his successors.[9] However, Seikichi Toguchi is quoted as saying “Let me first say that I was not named the successor of Goju-Ryu by Miyagi, but nor was anyone else. There are some Goju-Ryu teachers who claim to have been privately appointed successor by Miyagi. These claims are ludicrous and disrespectful of his memory. He never publicly named anyone as successor. Common sense would dictate that if he were to appoint someone, it would have been a longtime student and it would have to be of public record to have any value. Miyagi was not a man to do things in a haphazard manner - everything was very deliberate and precise. It would also be logical to assume that since Miyagi would not grant dan ranking, how then would he be inclined to name a successor? I feel Miyagi would be rolling in his grave with the plethora of ridiculous claims about this matter."[7]

After Miyagi's death, his most experienced pupils at the time of his death were Sekō Higa, Meitoku Yagi, Eiichi Miyazato, Koshin Iha, and Seikichi Toguchi.[9]

The family of Chojun Miyagi communicated that the founder of the style wanted Eiichi Miyazato to succeed him. The Goju Ryu committee, formed by major students of Miyagi (which included among others Nakaima, Madanbashi, Meitoku Yagi, Iha Koshin) at a meeting in February 1954 voted almost unanimously Eiichi Miyazato as the official successor to Chojun Miyagi. Miyazato continued to teach from Miyagi’s Garden Dojo until 1957, when he built the Jundokan dojo with the help of the Miyagi family.[9] Miyagi's family also donated Hojo Undo tools and Miyagi's Busanagashi statue to Miyazato, which became the symbol for the Jundokan.

Another important recognition was made by Miyagi's family in 1963 to Meitoku Yagi, publicly recognizing him as one of the successors of Miyagi and giving him one of Miyagi's karate gis and belts.[7]

Later other students would proclaim themselves Miyagi's successors like An’ichi Miyagi (a claim supported by Morio Higaonna, who claims An'ichi as his main teacher[9][10]) or Gōgen Yamaguchi.[8]

In popular culture[edit]

The character of Mr. Miyagi in the Karate Kid film series, written by Goju Ryu student of Toguchi - Kayo Ong lineage Robert Mark Kamen, was inspired by Chōjun Miyagi.[11]

Writings[edit]

  • Miyagi, Chojun. "Karate-Do Gaisetsu. Outline of Karate-Do". March 23, 1934 (Showa 9). Reprint published in 1999 by Patrick McCarthy. Translated by Patrick and Yuriko McCarthy, 1993. Also in: Higaonna, Morio. "The History of Karate: Okinawan Goju-Ryu".
  • Miyagi, Chojun. "Historical Outline of Karate-Do, Martial Arts Of Ryukyu". January 28, 1936. Translated by Sanzinsoo. In Japanese: "Ryukyu Kenpo Karatedo Enkaku Gaiyo", essay appeared in "Okinawano Karatedo" by Shoshin Nagamine (1975, Shinjinbutsu Oraisha) and "Okinawaden Gojuryu Karatedo" by Eiichi Miyazato (1979, Jitsugyono Sekaisha).
  • Miyagi Chojun et al. "The Meeting of Okinawan Karate Masters" Fragment of the 1936 meeting records. Published as an Appendix of "Karatedo Dai Hokan", by Kanken Toyama. Pages 377-392 (Tsuru Shobo, 1960). (translated by Sanzinsoo)
  • Miyagi Chojun. "Breathing In and Breathing Out in accordance with Go and Ju , a Miscellaneous Essay on Karate". First published in "Bunka Okinawa" Vol.3 No.6, August 15, 1942. Republished in "Chugoku Okinawa Karate Kobudo No Genryu" written by Masahiro Nakamoto, April 1, 1985 by Bunbukan. Translated by Sanzinsoo.

Further reading[edit]

  • Miyagi, Chojun: Toudijutsu Gaisetsu (Outline of Karatedo ) Chojun Miyagi, Original publication. Okinawa ©1933 - Japan. International Ryukyu Karate Research Society Yokohama Japan © 1934.
  • Nakaima Genkai. "Memories of my Sensei, Chojun Miyagi". In: "Chojun Miyagi the Karate Master. His kindness is infinite. He preaches morality." in: local monthly magazine "Aoi Umi" No.70 February 1978 issue (pages 99–100) published by Aoi Umi Shuppansha. That special issue featured Okinawan karate masters. Fragment translated by Sanzinsoo.
  • OLIVEIRA, Humberto Nuno de; LOPES, Eduardo Cunha. "Karate-Do por Chojun Miyagi". (Complete Writings). Bubok Edition, 2015 (PT). 80 p. Illustrated (b&w). ISBN 978-84-686-6419-4

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.karatedo.co.jp/gojukai/english/e-about.html
  2. ^ The Karate Genealogy of Sosai Mas Oyama Archived 2004-10-25 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Jones, C. Michial (2011). Entering through the Gateway of Gojuryu (1st ed.). Yushikai Press. ISBN 978-1257979387.
  4. ^ Toguchi, Seikichi (1976). Okinawan Goju-Ryu: Fundamentals of Shorei-Kan Karate. Burbank, California: Ohara Publications. ISBN 0-89750-018-0.
  5. ^ McCarthy and Lee, 1987: p. 39
  6. ^ a b c Higaonna, Morio (1985–1990). Traditional karate-do: Okinawa goju ryu (1st ed.). Tokyo, Japan: Minato Research. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. OCLC 12948826.
  7. ^ a b c d Toguchi, Seikichi, 1917-1998. (2001). Okinawan Goju-ryu II : advanced techniques of Shorei-kan karate. Tamano, Toshio., Lenzi, Scott. Burbank, Calif.: Ohara Publications. ISBN 0-89750-140-3. OCLC 48846495.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ a b "History". www.gojukai.com. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  9. ^ a b c d "Eiichi Miyazato (1921–1999) The Final Interview! | Goju Karate-Jutsu". Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  10. ^ Nakamura, Tetsuji. "International Okinawan Goju-Ryu Karate-do Federation – IOGKF History". Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  11. ^ Prewitt, Alex (2018-05-01). "The Crane Kick Is Bogus: A Karate Kid Oral History". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 2019-05-13.